98. (1) If an arrangement is declared to be an impermissible avoidance arrangement, then, the consequences, in relation to tax, of the arrangement, including denial of tax benefit or a benefit under a tax treaty, shall be determined, in such manner as is deemed appropriate, in the circumstances of the case, including by way of but not limited to the following, namely:—
(a) disregarding, combining or recharacterising any step in, or a part or whole of, the impermissible avoidance arrangement;
(b) treating the impermissible avoidance arrangement as if it had not been entered into or carried out;
(c) disregarding any accommodating party or treating any accommodating party and any other party as one and the same person;
(d) deeming persons who are connected persons in relation to each other to be one and the same person for the purposes of determining tax treatment of any amount;
(e) reallocating amongst the parties to the arrangement—
(i) any accrual, or receipt, of a capital nature or revenue nature; or
(ii) any expenditure, deduction, relief or rebate;
(i) the place of residence of any party to the arrangement; or
(ii) the situs of an asset or of a transaction,
at a place other than the place of residence, location of the asset or location of the transaction as provided under the arrangement; or
(g) considering or looking through any arrangement by disregarding any corporate structure.
(2) For the purposes of sub-section (1),—
(i) any equity may be treated as debt or vice versa;
(ii) any accrual, or receipt, of a capital nature may be treated as of revenue nature or vice versa; or
(iii) any expenditure, deduction, relief or rebate may be recharacterised.
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